STEFAN GEORGE AND HIS CIRCLE 157 mos; for it is close-visioned as shape and heard as the harmony of the divine purpose. The poet's mind thus fixed and functioning is itself the universe as it was, as it is and ever shall be, and the sense of existence sings itself into floating rhythms that shape them- selves to the very feeling of the ideas they convey and wed them- selves to the inner melody of the ever-moving cosmos. RUDOLF PANNWITZ (i88i- ) described his development in his Grnndriss einer Geschichte meiner Kultur (1921) and explained the aims of the Charontiker in his Kultur> Kraft, Kunst (1906). He parted from zur Linde because he had come to the conclusion that in the Charontic style there was formlessness due to the rejection of the culture of Greece and Rome (die Antike}. He then returned to his previous allegiance to Stefan George and adopted the Georgean orthography with small letters for nouns and scant punctuation. His work, which covers a vast range, is at first densely obscure but clears gradually, and there is still a following for his abstruse metaphysical and mythical poems, in which, in the wake of Nietz- sche, Otto zur Linde, and Stefan George, he probes a way to a new cosmic Mythos, as in his epics Das Kind Aion (1919), My then (in ten parts, 1919-22), Episches Zeitgedicht (1919), Das Geheimnis (1922) and Die Trilogie desl^ebens (1929). Pannwitz is himself with his remote personality a mythical figure; from 1921 to 1948 he lived the life of a recluse on a Dalmatian island, and here his mature works were completed. In the drama he is represented by Dionysiscbe Tragodien (1913), TSaldurs ^^(1919), and then Pbilolethes and Orpheus (1922). His lyric verse is best studied in Urblick (1926) and his selection Landschaft-Gedichte (1954), to which he has at- tached an interpretative Nachmrt. The best known of his narrative prose works are Orplid(K)z$) and his 'Bildungs- und Erziehungs- roman' Das new Leben, which attempts the scope of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. Of his paedagogical and philosophical works the most important is DieKrisisder europaiscbenKttltur (1917), *n which he interprets Greek tragedy, French classicism, Shakespeare and Byron and adumbrates the possibility of a culturally united Eur- ope, a cnew European cultural humanity', an idea which is also the base of his Deutschland und Europa (1918) and Die deutsche Idee Europa (1931). His dithyrambic Die deutsche Lebre (1919), Nietz- schean with Stefan George's devices, might be taken to be spread- ing Nazi ideology at a time when Hitler was still a brooding ex-Feldwebel.